How to Change the MPI Node Address For a Siemens S7-300 PLC

I have seven Siemens S7-300 PLCs connected together using the MPI (Multi Point Interface) interface. The Siemens MPI protocol is used by Siemens PLCs to communicate with external devices. I want to rename each of the seven PLCs. Here are the steps to accomplish that task.

First, connect your MPI cable to the first PLC. I will be connecting my laptop to each PLC individually. Power up the PLC and open Simatic Manager. The "New Project" Wizard window will open. Just click Cancel to close the window. Now click the Accessible Nodes icon on the toolbar. A window will open showing the identification of the PLC you are connected to. My window is showing MPI = 2 (directly). Make a note of this address and close the window.

Next we need to download a hardware configuration to the PLC. This is where we will rename the PLC node address. There are probably a couple of different ways to do this – following is how I accomplish this. All seven of my PLCs are the same model; Therefore, I am using the same hardware configuration. For the obvious reasons, I want to give each a different MPI node address. I have a project file that contains all seven of my PLC programs and one hardware configuration file. I open the one hardware configuration file, and then double click Hardware in the right hand window. This will open the HW Configuration window. In this window you should see your PLC with its MPI address given.

Remember when we clicked the Accessible Nodes icon and saw MPI = 2 (directly)? My Hardware Configuration Window is showing a MPI address of 7. Place your mouse cursor on the 7 and double click. Your CPU Properties window will open. It should open to the General tab. Look down and you will see Interface Type MPI with an address of 7. Click Properties and the MPI interface Properties window will open. Using the pull down menu, choose your MPI node address and make sure the MPI (1) 187.5kbps is highlighted and click OK. You are now back on the CPU Properties window where you will see your address has changed. Click OK and you will go back to the Hard Ware window where you can verify your MPI node address has changed.

You will now click the Save and Compile icon and then click the download icon. The Select Target Module window will open. Click OK and the Select Node Address window will open. Here you will see the MPI node address you assigned earlier. You will need to click the View button right below this. You will see the current node address appear, this should be the same as what you saw earlier when you clicked the Accessible Nodes icon. Simply click on this number and you will see it appear in the MPI address slot under the Enter connection to target station. Click OK and the Download to Module window will open. Click OK and the Stop Target Modules window will open. Click OK and the "Do you want to start the module?" Window will open. Click Yes.

Now go back to the SIMATIC Manager window and click the accessible nodes icon. You will see your new MPI node address. You can see this same article with pictures at http://www.morerobototics.com .

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Corel DRAW – Best Desktop Publishing Software

Corel DRAW is a supreme supplier of graphics software, including the popular Corel DRAW program. Corel DRAW has tools that allow the user to both create and edit images. The type of desktop publishing tools that you use will depend on the type of project. For more information and assistance, use the Corel website.

Corel DRAW is the best Desktop publishing software that empowers users to create illustrations containing graphics, text and photographs. Corel has an extensive range of tools which enable the user to edit any shape or character with ease and precision, fit text to curves and create custom color separations. It is developed and marketed by Corporation of Ottawa. This tool can open files: Adobe PageMaker, Microsoft Publisher and Word, and other programs can print documents to Adobe PDF using the Writer printer driver, which such software can then open and edit every aspect of the original layout and design.

Several innovations to vector-based illustration originated with Corel: a node-edit tool that operates differently on different objects, fit text-to-path, stroke-before-fill, quick fill/stroke color selection palettes, perspective projections, mesh fills and complex gradient fills.

One of this software’s many strengths is the huge range of over 1,000 fonts that it comes with, provided in both TrueType and Postscript Type 1 format. Corel differentiates itself from its opponent in a number of ways: The first is its positioning as a graphics suite, rather than just a vector graphics program. A full range of editing tools allow the user to adjust contrast, color balance, change the format from RGB to CMYK, add special effects such as vignettes and special borders to bitmaps. Bitmaps can also be edited more extensively using Corel PhotoPaint, opening the bitmap directly from Corel and returning to the program after saving. It also allows a laser to cut out any drawings.

Expert believed it was the first of the Windows-based drawing programs and has built on this early start to become far-and-away the dominant drawing package on the PC. Its biggest strength – and its biggest potential limitation – is its all-encompassing approach. In the past this has led to accusations of unfocused bloating, but with version 7.0 Corel has addressed the criticisms with a far tighter and better rationalized program. Even so, there’s a huge range of functionality to cover.

Corel DRAW Download was originally developed for Microsoft Windows and currently runs on Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7. The current version, X5, was released on 23 February 2010.

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Why Computer Hardware Is Important

In this day and age, it is hard to deny the influence of technology in our lives. We live in an era where pretty much is automated and computerized. And amidst all the technological advancement that humankind has achieved, one important device has been created that will only sure to become more relevant to our lives as technology progresses, the computer. No one can deny that computers are now an essential part of our lives, the same way a cell phone and television does. It is safe to say that in this day and age, having no computer would be an inconvenience. Which is why it is important that we know the way our computer works so that we would be aware of the things that we should do in case it stops working. The hardware of the computer is considered to be the most important because without it, it will simply not work.

Simply put if you know how to handle the hardware of a computer and know each of their function for the unit, then you can easily determine what the problem is in case the unit stops functioning. In order to be familiar with basic computer troubleshooting, then you also need to be familiar with computer hardware. A good example of this is the memory of the computer (RAM). All programs and applications that are ran in a computer needs memory. Without RAM it simply will not function. Aside from that, even if you have a RAM but it does have the specifications to keep up with the programs that are being run, then the operation would have slowed down to a crawl. So when it comes to computer hardware, you have to make sure that it is not obsolete, so you need to upgrade depending on what sort of program that you are usually using.

When handling computer hardware, you have to keep in mind some safety measures so you can manipulate the unit safely. Before opening any computer cases, you have to make sure that the unit is unplugged or you might risk electrocution or shocks. While checking your hardware components, always check for damaged parts because that is most likely the one that is causing problems. When inserting components and parts, you have to remember that if it does not fit, then most likely you are inserting it on the wrong slot. If it does not fit, then do not force it or you will risk breaking the component. Before touching any parts inside the unit, make sure that you discharge yourself first by through a grounded metal object or you can use an anti-static wrist strap or mat which is sold in stores for cheap.

By knowing and analyzing every computer hardware part you will know about its importance and if it ever breaks down then you can perform the proper troubleshooting steps. Every hardware component is important for the computer's operation. The performance of your computer largely depends on how good your hardware is, so be sure that they are always in good working condition.

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Schedule Slippage – Root Causes

“The single most important task of a project: setting realistic expectations. Unrealistic expectations based on inaccurate estimates are the single largest cause of software failure.”- Futrell, Shafer

Introduction

With global and competitive market, it is very important to launch a product or service in the market on time, ahead of competitors. Definitely, timely launch depends on on-time-completion of the product development projects. Project planning has lots of challenges to overcome in order to finish the project on time – right from schedule predictability, envisioning future/possible risks and coming up with mitigation plans.

This article talks about some of the challenges, often faced in the Software Product Development industry that causes the schedule slippage.

Schedule slippage: Delay in the project completion from its initial estimated date of completion.

Each project plan will have a planned completion date (NRA, RA), and a bounding box or upper limit in schedule. Nowadays, it is a common practice to have three dates associated with any project plan:

  • Non-Risk Adjusted (NRA) date: Project completion date assuming no hurdles – Ideal conditions.
  • Risk Adjusted (RA) date: Project completion date assuming some risks will come on the way and will need extra time to attend to them.
  • Bounding Box (BB) or upper limit: The upper limit on the project plan before which the project has to be finished under any circumstances – Generally decided by the top management based on product/services roadmap and launch in the market.

Under ideal circumstances, any project is scheduled to complete by NRA date. Considering some risks that may come on the way and would eat some time off the schedule, the project should be over by RA date. If the risks were not envisioned and hence not planned well, then project may get delayed and would complete after RA date. Project completion crossing the RA or upper limit is neither good nor expected out of a well-planned project.

Root Causes

As we always plan for a project to get over before RA date, seldom is the case it happens as expected. There are multiples reasons for schedule slippage, right from improper planning, lack of resources to unplanned requirements and rework that eat away vital time off the planned schedule.

A typical project development process – Each project will have a team (development, testing and other functions) that will work through a process (requirement analysis, schedule estimation, design, implementation and testing) to deliver a product to the customer/end user. Each entity that participate in the project – directly or indirectly affect the schedule.

From the development process, we can identify the items that can cause delay in the execution of the project – for example, misinterpreted or unclear requirement adds up to completion time, unavailability of development tools or resources can prolong the project duration. Various processes like schedule estimation, detailed design and product development if not executed skillfully, may significantly blow up the project cycle.

For better understanding all these possible causes that may result in schedule slippage are categorized .

Let’s have a detailed look at the root causes of schedule slippage category wise.

1) Schedule Estimation: “The key is not to prioritize what’s on your schedule, but to schedule your priorities.” – Stephen Covey

For a project to be executed on time, it is very important to have it planned very well. Any mistake in project schedule estimation reflects as delay in the project completion from its deadline. There are several factors that contribute to improper schedule estimation:

· Underestimation of technical complexities: At the start of the project, many of the team members may not have thorough knowledge of technical complexities and hence their estimation would be incorrect. Sometimes it may so happen that the person giving estimates for a particular task is having no idea about the technical challenges involved in carrying out that particular task. You might hear, towards the mid/end of the project life cycle when the task is not finished on time – “Oh, I didn’t know that this feature also requires 5 more tasks to be done!” or “I was thinking this task to be so simple, but I under estimated it!”. · Lack of Design/Big picture: It is important to have a bigger picture / overview of the complete project to understand how a particular module/feature would fit in to complete project. Product or system level design helps in understanding the interfaces among other modules and the required coordination for product assembly and hence, a better insight into the work involved. Often, estimates without focus on detailed design tend to deviate more from the actual time taken for finishing the job. · Integration Testing: While making a project plan, testing also needs to be accommodated in the schedule. At times, the unit testing or testing done by individual contributors on their module is taken into account but not the system level testing. Toward the release, when all the individually tested modules are brought together, a system level or integration testing is a must. Having the time for integration testing not accounted in the overall project schedule will cause delay in the project completion.

· Unplanned dependencies: Project planning is not only about breaking the project into minute tasks and managing them. A well-planned project schedule also needs to consider certain unplanned dependencies. Some of these are:

o People: Optimum utilization of human resources calls for same set of people working in multiple projects. A person may not be available to work for currently planned/assigned project due to extended/unplanned work in another parallel project. Another issue related to people could be unplanned/unexpected attrition that will affect the project plan. Time is also lost in mentoring of new member by a senior (more experienced) person which goes unaccounted if not planned.

o Tools & Equipments: Project can be delayed if team is waiting for release of upgrade or procurement of any vital tool (hardware or software being used in the project) or if the equipments required for development and testing are not available. “We had a 3-months project for validating our existing solution on new product platform using customer DUT (device under test). We had to wait for the DUT for nearly 1.5 months as it got stuck in customs. After getting the DUT, we realized that it’s been damaged partially during transportation. As a result we had to ask for another DUT and whole project took more than 5 months to get finished.” – I am sure that such cases will be quite familiar to many organizations. Other reason for timely unavailability of tools / equipments is that they are shared among various projects to reduce the operating cost. Any unplanned dependency on their usage or wrong assumption about availability of these shared resources would cause delay in the program. Team members might have to work on shifts to optimize the usage of shared resources which can cause reduced work hours and/or productivity loss and results to schedule slippage.

“I was waiting for Matlab license to be released by another person in the team but he left the office without doing so and I lost 3 hours figuring out what to do?” – is it something you faced before?

o Other programs: If multiple programs have deliverable dependencies, then delay in one project will have cascaded effect on other projects, which directly or indirectly depend on its deliverable. “We got delayed because we had to wait for a critical UI component from the framework project team” or “We didn’t plan for bug fixes for a component which was supposed to be delivered defect free for our usage” are the common scenarios for delays in program which are dependent on other program deliverables. Parallel programs may affect the schedule of your program in a different way as well – Sometimes, management changes the priority of the programs running in parallel. If your project is considered as a low priority one then there might be lack of resources assigned to your project that may result in schedule slippage.

· Beta releases: How many times we seek feedback on our product during development? And how often we allocate time for it? It’s important to plan beta releases if we desire to have our product validated by expert users or lighthouse customers during development. Getting feedback from beta customers becomes important especially when their requirements echo that of a mass customer base. Process of giving workable releases to customers, collecting their experience, having their feedback analyzed, and then incorporating in the final product version takes significant time.

· Risk mitigation and plan B: Every project will have some or the other risks. These risks can be of varying severity and probabilities. While making project plan, it is important to treat the risk individually based on their severity and probability of occurrence. If high probable risks with higher severity are not planned with their mitigation plan (or plan B), they will have huge impact on schedule deviation from planned one. As in one of the previous examples quoted, getting a DUT on time for validation was a risk. Had there been a mitigate plan (plan B) like – Validate with other DUT or if DUT is not available here, let one developer travel to customer’s place and finish the validation on time, the schedule slippage would have been avoided.

2) People: Ultimately, projects are executed by people who may not be skilled or talented. Hence, looking for perfection in projects involving human beings may not be a feasible thought. Certain unpredictable and hence unavoidable issues under this category are:

· Poor leadership: Before thinking of project execution, it is project planning that actually would set the platform of success. Execution of the project depends on its team while planning is taken care by the project leader. The project leader is expected to have enough technical know-how to understand the project goals and to the details of the tasks involved. Poor leadership and superficial knowledge of assignments often results in invalid effort estimation and ad hoc task delegation causing stress and possible delay in project execution. People leading the team are also responsible for keeping the team spirit and motivation level upbeat. Poor personal commitment due to lack of motivation results in loss of productivity and may cause schedule to slip. Another reason that adds up to delay in projects is inability of leadership team to track the schedule progress and take the correction action.

· Attrition: If the project duration is large and job market is hot, it may be difficult to retain people in the project till its completion. Attrition may further delay the completion especially if the person leaving the job was in critical path. A person leaving the organization would leave a gap in the project that a new person may not fill immediately, which in turn causes sudden reduction in the task force.

· Learning curve: When ever a new person or team member is included in the project, he or she may require some time to understand the project to keep in pace with other members. Learning curve is needed for new team members, joining the team either due to attrition or due to any specific technical competency requirement. · Context switching: In smaller organization or groups where people work on multiple projects simultaneously, it is important to have some buffer for context switching. A person planned to work in project ‘A’ for two hours after a gap of two weeks, would take more than scheduled time to complete that task. Gap of two weeks and the fact that he or she was involved in other project would require some time for the member to get back to the context of current project. · Global development teams: In an era of globalization and outsourcing, it is common these days to have development team distributed over different geographical regions. Project plan needs to account for different time zones and working culture. You might expect an input for your task on Monday morning your time but it may be Sunday late evening for that person and finally when the input arrives, you might be on your way to home after work.

Sometimes schedule estimation might go completely wrong if you have not understood the work culture of the region your teammate belongs to – “In my previous work, I was given a task to be completed with a heads up that its very critical task and needs immediate attention’. When I asked my project lead how many days/hours I have for it, I had been time for 2 weeks for high priority and ‘immediate-attention’ work.” Definition of ‘urgent’, ‘high priority tasks’ changes with culture and region.

· Communication Issues: People communicate differently. If important issues are not brought to the notice of the team members, or are not escalated on time, the entire project may suffer. Often fear of embarrassment stops team members from reporting issues faced during execution leading to more time being spent on that task that can easily be executed additional help.

3) Customer Involvement: These issues are quite serious if customer or end users of the product are involved in the development phase. Understanding customer’s priorities, defining your expectation from their involvement needs to be clear and in agreement with both the parties.

· Expert user testing: In the beginning of the project, expert user testing cycle needs to be planned. Process of giving builds or releases for testing and collecting their feedback, analyzing and incorporating them in your product takes significant time which, if not planned, can delay your program. · Timely feedback: “I got feedback from customers for features, delivered in development milestone-1, after milestone-5 towards the release. These feedbacks are critical but now I am worried how to incorporate them without affecting the schedule.” It sounds like a common problem. Incorporation of feedback from customers needs to be planned well taking a commitment from the customer. · Product requirement specification review: Having a product requirement review planned and executed will keep you on right track throughout the project. Reviewing the requirement specification will avoid requirement related defects fixing which otherwise would have delayed, the project.

4) Ambiguous Project Requirement: For any project to be initiated, the first thing is to have requirements for it. In the product development life cycle, requirement phase acts like a foundation. Clear requirement or vision for the project navigates the team to success. However, requirements may not be clear at the time of estimation and may result in delay in the project completion. Issues related:

· Evolving specs: If you are making a product based on a standard which is not yet matured or still evolving, you are more prone to have this risk. Frequency changes in the specs will change the requirement for the project during different stages of product development and team will continue to work on something that is not yet evolved. This results in rework that would delay the project if time for dealing with these changes is not accommodated in the schedule. “We developed an algorithm and hence measurement that was based on certain industry standard. Towards the release of the product, the specs changed and our measurement was no more valid. We had to redo the algorithm to reflect the changes in the specs. This caused our product release delayed by 2 months.” · New requirements: Sometimes new requirements are added as the project evolves towards completion. Implementation of new requirements is not planned at the beginning of the project and hence is not accounted in schedule. Adding new feature without revising the schedule may result in delay.

· Untold expectation: Requirements from the customers may be of two types – implicit or explicit. It is important to have the requirements well documented. Implicit requirements needs to be better defined and documented to avoid any confusion towards the end of the project. Customers may not describe their requirements related to system performance, memory issues, user interface quality and usability but they are very keen on providing feedback in those aspects once the product is given for expert user testing. If we are not clear about such requirements, out design might not address them. Addressing them towards the end of the project may call for design changes and extra work that would delay the project.

5) Unplanned Tasks / Reworks: Bounding box for the project is set by higher management and often lack buffer for unplanned task(s). Having more of unplanned task that creep up at different phases of project can cause schedule slippage. The unplanned tasks or rework may arise due to:

· Sustaining work: In smaller organizations, some of the project team may also be responsible for sustaining / customer support of existing products. These unplanned tasks, which come on event basis, related to customer support are always of high priority. Excess or prolonged sustaining work may take resource out of the planned project causing a potential threat for schedule slippage. · Defect fixes: Defects are bad as they degrade the product quality and consume extra time/effort to fix them. It is good to have testing of the intermediate releases of the project to find and fix defects sooner in the development life cycle. If the fixing-cycle for such internal-milestone defects is not planned, then either the project is either going to slip or product is going to be of poorer quality. Poor programming skill of the team, not adapting to modern programming practices and having ad hoc development processes may lead to higher number of defects which would take more time to fix then planned and cause slippage.

· Task spillover from previous milestone: Tasks that are not completed in previous milestone, due to whatever reason (inefficiency, vacation of the team member, resource crunch etc), will have to be completed in the next milestone thereby increasing the load on the team. If adequate buffer is not planned, these tasks spilled from previous milestone over to next, can delay the project. · Requirement change / refinement: Requirement changes during the product development will result in rework of what has been previously done with first version of requirement(s). Addressing changes in the requirements needs extra time and effort and may cause schedule slippage. In some cases, the requirement from customer is misunderstood resulting in wrong system design and implementation. Additional, unplanned time is lost in correcting the design/implementation which causes schedule slippage.

Conclusion

On time delivery is the challenge software development companies are facing globally. To have a complete control over estimated schedule, it is very important to identify the elements in the development cycle that cause schedule slippage. This article uncovers and explains the root causes of delay in programs using examples from real world. Having an insight to the root causes will help the program managers to make good decisions to avoid future schedule slippage.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Biometric Time and Attendance Software

First of all let me ask you what you understand by time and attendance software? Have you ever been asked to log in as soon as you enter office and the main gate of the office has a Biometric machine that takes in your finger prints and allows you to enter the office premise? Yes, these are the time and attendance software being installed in a company.

Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely identifying a person (human being) by his/her physical or behavioral traits. There are many biometric software available in market for such purpose and their use is widely known. One such use is Biometric time and attendance management software.

Those days are gone when we had to punch in cards or sign into a register to tell the other person that we are present. Just as paper checking has been changed from manual to computerized, identifying a person and letting him in your office has been changed from manual to biometrics.

There are many benefits of having such methodology in your office. Such as:

• Accurate timing: When a person looks at his watch and enters the time there is a slight chance that he may see the wrong timing and write. Whereas with biometric time and attendance software there is no possibility of such mistake. The user does not need to see or check the time, it automatically gets logged in.

• Less error: There is no scope of human error here.

• Profit to company: If it’s accurate and correct the company will definitely gain from it.

As everything has a good and bad side this too has its disadvantages, such as:

• Extra cost to company: Biometric software and machine cost a lot more, so installing such software need a good investment money wise.

• Extra management: Remember when every employee is logging his own timing when he comes or leaves; there is no extra management here. But, if you are putting a machine there has to be taken some care of it.

Biometrics time and management software is really helpful when creating payrolls for employees. Once a definite timing has been registered you don’t need to think twice before creating the employees pay.

Many homes are also using such kind of software to have a safe and secure home. Biometric software is really helpful when you need security in your home as well as in office. There are many companies all over the world providing such biometric time and attendance software. You just need to keep an eye on the technologies and websites that are providing you these.

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Computer Hardware Course – The Advantages of Taking It

Computer hardware courses are an excellent way to learn how to manage the inevitable computer failures that you will encounter as you find yourself hanging on your computer more and more everyday. While you do have the option of taking your computer to the service center it can cost you a lot of time and money. Your computer hardware course is invaluable for helping you understand the hardware requirements for your computer that will be enable you to jump to the rescue instead of trudging along to the repair shop.

It does not take an engineer or a technician to be successful in learning about computer hardware. If you are interested in engineering or technician positions however, a background in computer hardware can make you a far more valuable person in your field and can enhance your employability tremendously.

To troubleshoot your computer you can do very well with a simple computer hardware course. You can become your own specialist and forgo spending the money on an IT specialist.

The time invested in a computer hardware study program will pay off quickly when things go wrong. But, this is not the only reason taking a computer hardware course would be a good plan.

Not only will you be able to fix your computer, but you will have the knowledge to build a computer from scratch. The cost of computer parts is often far less expensive than buying a pre-made package. You will also be able to customize your computer so that it is perfectly designed for your needs.

By avoiding the cost of labor from the computer store you will have a far less expensive computer that is perfect for you. You will also no longer need to worry about taking your computer in for repairs as you will know just how to fix what goes wrong.

Computer knowledge is in high demand no matter what career you are involved in. With the information you learn in a computer hardware course you will be able to take on an IT position. Such positions are in high demand as a limited number of people have the knowledge to take on an IT role.

The time needed to take a computer hardware course is well worth the investment. Learning about software and programming can only make you even better with your computer goals. If you are limited in time, not to worry. Many courses are available online or on CD for you to do at home.

Take some time to discover exactly what will be covered in your course. The computer technology field is huge, so you will need to focus. You will never be able to learn everything about computer hardware in a single course. It takes a lifetime of study to learn, and with technology constantly changing you will need to continuously work on keeping your knowledge up to date. A computer hardware course will bring you a chance to get ahead of the game and keep up with your own computer.

Louis Zhang, computerhardwarecute dot com

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How Has Technology Changed Art?

We all are witnessing the changes being made in the art these days. Technology has the power to change anything. It is changing the traditional art into digital art.

Amazing digital art has taken place of traditional art. Digital art is exploring itself in many different ways that one can imagine. Different software is developed to increase the presence of digital art.

Photoshop Artists are one of the most common digital artists who give an amazing look to a picture with the help of imaging software and different applications.

These applications are developed with the help of technology. Anyone can be a digital artist having knowledge and proficiency in Photoshop.

Difference between traditional artists and digital artists is that traditional artists use paint and cement for their art and digital artists use imaging software and applications in their art. Some of the applications have the power to create 3D art work.

Technology has taken art into a new level of creativity. Let us talk about how technology has changed traditional art into digital art. We know that internet is ruling the world with its power. So, artists decided to present their art online with the help of internet. This is possible with use of technology.

You must have seen art galleries and attended painting exhibitions in your life. These doesn’t work well these days so artists find a way where they can get more attention and more praise for their work. Most of the artistic stuff is now seen online and is circulated to the art lovers.

There are some places where exhibitions are held and we do respect them. But presenting paintings, sculptures and art work online is in trend. Some of the artists are also showing their art on the basis of card swipe panel or coins.

How this work – when you enter coins or swipe card in the panel, the panel shows you some of the art work for a few minutes and then gets closed and if you want to see it again or explore more, further you need to swipe your card or add coins into it. This is how artists are using technology.

How digital artists are using technology for their art work

Digital artists already in touch with technology are aware of the systems that are in trend and use them to create their art work and sell them online.

Some of the professional digital artists are earning a lot of bucks by selling their art work. They can also design the ones that you want and are also ready to make any modifications you need.

They use different software to explore their skills and made it more impressive. They are using technologies that offer new ways to express their art work in a realistic way for much more time.

They are using different types of media and mix them to provide a more creative art work. Their 3D art work looks as real as it is present live in front of you.

Technology not only brings changes in education, medical field, industry and business but also brings a huge change in the art work and the artists as well.

Technology opens different paths for the artists to enter into for a good earning. They made their profession more powerful along with their art work.

In our busy lives we hardly get time to meet each other and our loved ones. How can it be possible to see exhibitions and galleries? So technology has brought this change in the art workers to show their skills and talent to people from anywhere in the world.

Technology is getting advanced and making more useful for the common man as well as artists. Technology has provided us with several things that we should be thankful. One of them is digital art work.

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Strengths and Weaknesses of Waterfall Approach for Software Development

One of the most famous and widely used approaches for software development is the waterfall model. Waterfall approach is an old technique that has been in use for quite some time, but in modern times agile approach is gaining prominence.

Waterfall approach, as is evident from the name, refers to a systematic approach where one step comes after the other. It cannot go the other way round. The process works like the waterfall effect that flows in one direction, which is from up to down.

In this process the life cycle of the development process is predetermined. All the steps are defined before the start of the project. The approach is predictive, where the team is well aware of the order of each step and therefore works accordingly. It starts from the requirement analysis, the design phase and then proceeds on to the implementation, testing and the maintenance phases.

The waterfall approach can be quite beneficial for those who are quite clear on their requirements. A planned approach works for them because they want fixed processes and budget. Where fixed processes are beneficial, at the same time they can be inconvenient at times. In cases where the client is not clear on the requirements and finds in the middle of the project that he/she wants to change course, this approach can prove to be quite problematic.

Another point of the waterfall approach is that the requirement analysis and design of architectural structure can consume a lot of time. Extensive research is done initially as the next phases depend completely on the planning strategy. However, the good thing is that everything is thoroughly worked out and each aspect is studied beforehand. The developers in such cases know what is expected of them.

A waterfall approach works in a systematic order, with one step following the other and the testing phase comes in the end. If there are any big problems encountered in the testing phase, it means a long process to make the amends. The process can consume extra time and money.

We cannot conclude that one approach is better than the other, as every method would have its own strengths and weaknesses. The determination of success for each method depends on how it is being used and whether the approach suits the scope of work being undertaken. While one approach may be suitable for a particular project, it might become totally useless under different circumstances. For example, some believe that agile methods are not well suited for offshore development, as they require a closer contact and communication that is not possible in an offshore project.

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Define Computer Hardware

It is quite well known that the working of the computer is dropped by hardware and software. One can define computer hardware as the electronic, magnetic, and electric devices that carry out the computing functions. Hardware is the physical components of the computer like microprocessor, hard disks, RAM, and motherboard. The peripheral devices such as monitor, mouse, keyboard, printer, and speakers can also be included in the list of hardware parts. The programs that run on the computers like Windows, C ++, and Photoshop are the software parts of the computer. A good example for an easy understanding of hardware-software definition is music CDs. The actual compact disk is the hardware, while the songs and music in the CD are the software parts.

There is another way to define computer hardware. Hardware devices are the executors of the commands provided by software applications. For example, let us see what happens when you click the print button of the web browsing software. The software application provides a command to the processor, which is the central part of all computer hardware. Processor in turn checks for an attached printer. If the printer is ready, the software will get a positive response from the processor. Then the software application provides instruction to the printer via the processor to print the web page. In that sense, hardware parts are the foot soldiers and software applications are the commanders in the digital operation that takes place within a computer.

The main player of computer hardware is unduly the microprocessor. It is the sun in the solar system of computer hardware devices. It is the central component and all other components work around it. It is an integrated chip on which a number of functions are incorporated. Two specifications determine its efficiency. One is its processing speed, which is measured in gigahertz. The other is its bit rate. Commonly available processors are 32 bit and 64 bit. The bit rate is a measure of the efficiency of a processor to carry out multiple operations at the same time.

One can not define computer hardware without mentioning the two types of memory used in computers. One is permanent memory. It refers to the magnetic storage capacity of hard disk. It is measured in gigabytes. The second is RAM or random access memory. This memory is able to store data only when the computer is switched on. The memory will lose all the data when the computer is switched off.

Another important product that one should mention when one defines computer hardware is motherboard. It is the electric and electronic circuit board on which all the other components are inserted. There are several other kinds of products such as sound card, video card, network card, and modem that complete the hardware spectrum.

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Pick 3 Lotto Logix – What You Should Know

The primary goal of Lotto Logix is to present informational resources for many individuals who are interested in playing and winning in lottery. Lotto Logix locates and lists the best lottery websites having useful contents for players; determines the best possible methods and strategies for playing at the lowest cost; finding free lottery games and lists the vital factors a player needs for lottery software. If you want to learn about lottery games such as pick 3 Logix provides pertinent information, which may help you in terms of playing, betting, and winning.

Lotto Logix limits its lists of lottery websites into 1 or 2 links so that players can choose efficiently. The websites are grouped according to their functionality in terms of software, results, and information. More so, Lotto Logix provides information of every website including tips, news, articles, freeware, books, statistics, shareware, programs, software, predictions, wheeling systems, and wheels among others. Since Lotto Logix has the objective of winning the lottery, it also provides assistance for players who would want to do the same. It is undeniable that not everyone has answers or solutions to winning in the lottery. Thus, Lotto Logix hopes in bringing methods and strategies to fit into one tool that will effectively lead to lottery winnings.

Although some lottery players do not believe in the usefulness of lottery software for games such as pick 3 Logix believe that it can help in storing, tracking, and charting winning number combinations. Lottery software provides predictions that are useful in choosing numbers to bet. The software can provide 90% accuracy in terms of distribution of numbers as well as the winning numbers since it lets you import your wheeling system. You can wheel all the numbers in you Pick 3, 5, or 6 games as you are allowed to filter number combinations.

In terms of free lotto games, Lotto Logix locates and lists every free online lottery games with legit prizes and uses state drawings for the winning numbers. On the other hand, Lotto Logix does not list all the games specifically if the websites for such games advertise extremely. This is because Lotto Logix thinks that it is much better to separate them from other free online lottery games that do not advertise as much. As such, it plans on establishing a link-farm page specifically for games that employ pay-per-click advertising or those that employ sign-ups in order to cover for the page cost. However, Logix is not very enthusiastic in creating such additional page. This is because most of these kinds of sites have too much demand that seem outrageous or unbelievable for players.

If you want to improve your odds of winning in lottery games such as pick 3 Logix has determined that playing more tickets is the only efficient way. On the other hand, it has also determined that it is more possible for you to win lower tier prizes while waiting to with the grand prize. It is best to establish strategies that allow you to track specific events for possible winnings.

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